A benchmark + dataset for evaluating multimodal models on business process management (BPM) tasks.


human demonstrations




Business process management (BPM) is a systematic approach for identifying, measuring, and improving organizational workflows, and is a critical component of many organizations internal operations. However, the majority of research in BPM tasks has focused on the full end-to-end automation of workflows utilizing powerful multimodal foundation models (FMs) like GPT4. This focus on automation ignores the reality of how most BPM tools are applied in practice -- to augment human workflows rather than replace them. Unfortunately, existing multimodal benchmarks lack the depth and diversity of annotations needed for evaluating models on a broader range of BPM tasks.

To help address this gap, we publish WONDERBREAD, a benchmark for evaluating multimodal FMs on BPM tasks with the goal of augmenting human workflows rather than replacing them.


Wonderbread consists of three primary components:

  1. A dataset containing 2,928 human demonstrations of 598 workflows, each of which include a textual description of the workflow intent, a full screen recording of the human completing the workflow, an action trace detailing which screen elements were interacted with, and a manually-written step-by-step guide in the form of a "Standard Opperating Procedure" (SOP). The demonstrations cover a wide range of tasks from 4 different websites interfaces sourced from the excellent WebArena benchmark.
  2. A benchmark with 6 novel BPM tasks that measure the ability of a model to generate accurate documentation, assist in knowledge transfer, and improve workflows. The tasks are designed to evaluate models on real-world applications of BPM tools, with a more broad focus than simple end-to-end automation.
  3. A fully automated evaluation harness for evaluating models on the introduced tasks. The harness is designed to be easy to use and can be run on any multimodal FM that can be prompted via API. The harness is open-source and available on our GitHub repository.

Comparison to Prior Work

A number of prior multimodal datasets have been published for end-to-end automation of websites (W), mobile apps (M), and desktop (D) applications. WONDERBREAD builds on this prior work by specifically targeting BPM tasks beyond end-to-end automation.


WONDERBREAD introduces 6 novel BPM tasks that measure the ability of a model to generate accurate documentation, assist in knowledge transfer, and improve workflows. The tasks are divided into three categories and are visualized below.

Documentation tasks

Given a video recording of a workflow demonstration, the model must generate an SOP documenting the steps of that demonstration.

Given multiple demonstrations from separate workflows concatenated into a single sequence, the model must identify when each workflow starts and ends.

Knowledge Transfer tasks

Given a free response question about one or more workflow demonstrations, the model must generate an answer.

Given a demonstration and SOP, the model must determine whether (a) the workflow was successfully completed; and (b) whether the demonstration exactly followed the SOP.

Improvement tasks

Given a set of SOPs written by human annotators, the model must rank the SOPs in order of quality.

Given a demonstration and low-quality SOP, the model must generate an improved SOP that better captures what is shown in the demonstration.


In our initial publication, we evaluated the out-of-the-box capabilities of several commerically accessible multimodal FMs including GPT-4, Gemini, and Claude.

SOP Generation

Task: Write an SOP that documents the steps of a workflow based on a video recording of a demonstration.

Evaluation: The generated SOP is compared to a human-written reference SOP through a pairwise evaluation process that calculates the overal precision (proportion of steps in the predicted SOP present in the reference SOP) and recall (proportion of steps in the reference SOP present in the generated SOP).

Results: Each point in the above figure is the precision/recall score for a single SOP generated by a single model. Higher and to the right is better. We find that most models demonstrate strong out-of-the-box capability to identify all steps in a demonstration (relatively higher recall) but are relatively more prone to hallucinating inaccurate or superfluous steps (lower precision).

Demo Segmentation

Task: Identify when each workflow starts and ends in a concatenated sequence of demonstrations.

Evaluation: Clustering accuracy of the model's prediction for each frame in the sequence.

Results: In the figure above, we visualize the performance of GPT-4 on sequences with 3 demonstrations. Green timesteps indicate a correct segmentation assignment, while red timesteps indicate an incorrect assignment. The black vertical lines indicate the true start and end of each demonstration.


  title={Do Multimodal Foundation Models Understand Enterprise Workflows? A Benchmark for Business Process Management Tasks}, 
  author={Michael Wornow and Avanika Narayan and Ben Viggiano and Ishan S. Khare and Tathagat Verma and Tibor Thompson and Miguel Angel Fuentes Hernandez and Sudharsan Sundar and Chloe Trujillo and Krrish Chawla and Rongfei Lu and Justin Shen and Divya Nagaraj and Joshua Martinez and Vardhan Agrawal and Althea Hudson and Nigam H. Shah and Christopher Re},
  journal={arXiv preprint arXiv:2406.13264},
  title={WebArena: A Realistic Web Environment for Building Autonomous Agents},
  author={Zhou, Shuyan and Xu, Frank F and Zhu, Hao and Zhou, Xuhui and Lo, Robert and Sridhar, Abishek and Cheng, Xianyi and Bisk, Yonatan and Fried, Daniel and Alon, Uri and others},
  journal={arXiv preprint arXiv:2307.13854},